Associations of cognitive reserve and psychological resilience with cognitive functioning in subjects with cerebral white matter hyperintensities

European Journal of Neurology

A. Arola, H.M. Laakso, J. Pitkänen, J. Koikkalainen, J. Lötjönen, A. Korvenoja, T. Erkinjuntti, S. Melkas, H. Jokinen

In the Helsinki Small Vessel Disease Study, 152 subjects (aged 65-75 years) underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, evaluation of subjective cognitive complaints, and brain MRI with volumetric white matter hyperintensity evaluation. Cognitive reserve was strongly and consistently associated with cognitive functioning; education was widely associated with objective cognitive functioning; lifetime engagement in cognitively stimulating leisure activities was predictive of memory performance and subjective cognitive complaints; and psychological resilience was strongly associated with subjective, but not objective, cognitive functioning.